Our company
The foot and its problems
Sole examination
Pedikom Kft - Computerised sole examination, orthotic insole, individual orthotic insole, aids shop, foot centre


The contexture of the foot

The contexture of the footThe foot, consisting of 26 different bones, is a masterpiece of engineering. Strong ligaments and small muscles hold them together, enshrouding the bones like a cloak. These provide the load-bearing ability and preserve the arch of the sole. For someone to be able to assess the extensive range of foot complaints correctly and to understand illnesses frequently based on static problems, the marvellous world of the contexture of the foot has to be explored a little.
AOf the parts of the human body the foot has come off the worst from man's coming to stand on two legs in the course of evolution. In the history of evolution the foot was a climbing foot in a state of supination. From this it developed and is developing into a standing foot, which means the gradual development of pronation. The contexture of the footThis climbing foot is preserved in the structure of the metatarsals. However, exactly the same structure became the most important supporting element of the standing foot with the transversal and longitudinal arches. The former skilfulness of the foot is demonstrated by how people who for some reason lost their upper limbs can learn to paint, cook and phone. Due to wearing the wrong footwear in childhood, overweight and many other reasons, the feet of people today are but "a caricature of the ideal foot". (Hohmann)

The arch of the foot

The arch of the footThe arch of the footThe multiple bones and joints of the foot give it flexibility, but these multiple bones must form an arch to support any weight. As in Gothic architecture, the construction of the feet has pointed arches, both supporting the weight of the body and leading it to the ground. Ideally the foot is a balanced biomechanical structure consisting of bones, joints, muscles, tendons and ligaments. When the posture of the feet or balance is not correct, it could result in feet problems (such as flat feet and high arches), which may in turn cause related problems in the ankles, knees, hips and lower back.


Leg muscles have two main groups. The leg's own muscles are strong and cover the bones in many layers. Apart from movement, they play a role in holding up the arches, stretching the skin, and supporting the sole.

The muscles of the foot Flexor muscles Extensor muscles

The muscles of the foot

Flexor muscles

Extensor muscles

The strong muscles of the lower leg are attached to the foot. By stretching the leg, one part of them, the extensors, extends the foot and toes upwards, from the sole towards the head. The muscles forming the calf, the flexors, bend the foot towards the heel and when standing raise the body. Certain muscles only move the toes, while others the whole foot.

Blood vessels and nerves

Blood vessels and nervesThe main nerve to the foot, the posterior tibial nerve, enters the sole of the foot by running down behind the inside bump on the ankle, the medial malleolus.

Blood vessels and nervesBlood vessels and nervesThe main blood supply to the foot (the posterior tibial artery) runs right beside the nerve. There are other less important nerves and arteries that enter the foot from other directions.

Blood vessels and nervesThe posterior tibial tendon attaches one of the smaller muscles of the calf to the underside of the foot. This tendon helps support the arch and allows us to turn the foot inward.

Blood vessels and nervesThe anterior tibial tendon allows us to raise the foot.

Blood vessels and nervesThe large Achilles tendon is the most important tendon for walking, running and jumping. It attaches the calf muscles to the heel bone to allow us to raise up on the toes.

Blood vessels and nervesThe toes have tendons attached that bend the toes down (on the bottom of the toes) and straighten the toes (on the top of the toes). The anterior tibial tendon allows us to raise the foot.

Created by absoluteweb.hu
Created by absoluteweb.hu